Renewable hydroelectric power accounts for approximately 35 percent of Cloverland Electric Cooperative’s power supply. The cooperative’s hydroelectric plant in Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan, generates 20 percent of the hydroelectric power. An additional 15 percent is generated from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers hydro plant, located in the Soo Locks.
About the Hydro Plant
The excavation of the hydro canal began in September 1898 and was completed in June 1902. It is lined with more than 10,000 white pine timbers native to the area to strengthen and stabilize the structure.
The canal is approximately 2 1/4 miles in length from the headgates (intake) to the hydro plant. It is approximately 24 feet deep and 200 feet wide at water level. The canal’s entrance is located at the east end of Ashmun Bay and controlled by four steel headgates.
The construction of the landmark hydroelectric plant facility was completed in 1902. At the time of completion, the plant was the second largest hydro facility next to Niagara Falls.
The hydro plant is constructed of steel and red sandstone. The stone was excavated from the power canal. The plant is a quarter mile long, 80 feet wide and has seventy-four horizontal shaft turbines located on the generation floor level. Each turbine has four runners (blades) that drive the 60-cycle generators. The water, which flows down the power canal, drops through gates in the turbines to make them spin, like a child’s pinwheel in the wind. The turbine turns the generator rotor, creating electricity.
Under the most favorable operating conditions, the hydro plant is capable of producing about 36,000 kilowatts (36 megawatts). The power output depends on the volume of water travelling through the power canal and the plant’s operating head. The operating head is the difference in water levels at the plant’s forebay (upriver) and the tailrace (downriver) on the St. Marys River. This difference is equivalent to the drop in elevation between Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes.
At peak operation, the plant discharges approximately 30,000 cubic feet of water per second, which is equivalent to about 13.5 million gallons per minute.
Local architect, James Calloway Teague finalized plans for the hydro plant in 1899. The Romanesque design included three large pavilions and a double-pitched roof to counter balance the length of the plant. This design was the most economical and gave the impression of power, importance and stability.
- The hydro plant consists of 74 three-phase generators. Each 60-cycle generator operates at 4400 volts, 180 RPM and 600 to 850 KVA (600 KVA is enough power to supply two big box retail stores).
- With 20 feet of headwaters falling from the upper St. Marys River to the lower river, the rated output of the turbines is between 772 and 935 horse power.
- Three manufacturers (no longer in existence) built the turbines. Many replacement parts are now machined in-house.
- Canal water velocity is seven to 10 feet per second, or five to seven miles per hour.
- A 12-person team oversees the plant.
- The hydro plant generates between 25 and 30 megawatts of electricity on average, or about 225 million kilowatt-hours, annually. It produces one-fifth of the power needs of the eastern Upper Peninsula.
- Renewable hydroelectric power accounts for 35 percent of our power supply. We produce 20 percent and an additional 15 percent is generated from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers hydro plant.
- Most of the heat needed for the building during the winter months is generated by the operating equipment.
- The plant is allocated water every month by the International Joint Commission (IJC) for use in power generation. The IJC controls the levels of Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes by regulating the amount of water the generating plants can use for power production.
- The plant increases electricity production when the demand for electricity is highest (8 a.m.– 10 p.m., weekdays) and reduces production at all other times during periods of insufficient water allocations.
- Half of the original wood bearings for the turbines are still in use today. The bearings were made from lignum vitae, a rare dense wood found in Central and South America.
- Cloverland Electric Cooperative serves the eastern Upper Peninsula including all the neighboring islands. The annual energy use of this region is approximately 900 million kilowatt-hours.
- Cloverland Electric Cooperative is a not-for-profit, member-owned electric utility established in 1938.
Lake Superior State University Aquatic Research Lab
- The Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), operated by Lake Superior State University, is located in the east end of the hydro plant. LSSU students are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the ARL and receive valuable hands-on experience in freshwater research and fish culture.
- With the support of Cloverland Electric Cooperative and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment, the ARL performs freshwater research and stocks fish in the St. Marys River.
- The ARL raises and releases approximately 25,000 Atlantic salmon into the St. Marys River each year.
- The ARL has helped hundreds of LSSU graduates obtain jobs in fish and wild life management, hatchery operations, ecology and other biological sciences.
- The ARL plans to relocate to the west end of the hydroelectric plant and expand its research, education and hatchery operations.